This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Reactive attachment disorder RAD is a severe disorder of social functioning.
Attachment theory and attachment disorder Pediatricians are often the first health professionals to assess and raise suspicions of RAD in children with the disorder.
Infants up to about 18—24 months may present with non-organic failure to thrive and display abnormal responsiveness to stimuli. Laboratory investigations will be unremarkable barring possible findings consistent with malnutrition or dehydrationwhile serum growth hormone levels will be normal or elevated.
This can manifest itself in three ways: Indiscriminate and excessive attempts to receive comfort and affection from any available adult, even relative strangers older children and adolescents may also aim attempts at peers. Extreme reluctance to initiate or accept comfort and affection, even from familiar adults, especially when distressed.
Actions that otherwise would be classified as conduct disordersuch as mutilating animalsharming siblings or other family, or harming themselves intentionally.
However, the instances of that ability are rare. Often a range of measures is used in research and diagnosis. Recognized assessment methods of attachment styles, difficulties or disorders include Reactive attachment disorder research paper Strange Situation Procedure devised by developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth   the separation and reunion procedure and the Preschool Assessment of Attachment,  the Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment,  the Attachment Q-sort  and a variety of narrative techniques using stem storiespuppets or pictures.
For older children, actual interviews such as the Child Attachment Interview and the Autobiographical Emotional Events Dialogue can be used. Caregivers may also be assessed using procedures such as the Working Model of the Child Interview. This method is designed to pick up not only RAD but also the proposed new alternative categories of disorders of attachment.
Causes[ edit ] Although increasing numbers of childhood mental health problems are being attributed to genetic defects reactive attachment disorder is by definition based on a problematic history of care and social relationships. Abuse can occur alongside the required factors, but on its own does not explain attachment disorder.
The issue of temperament and its influence on the development of attachment disorders has yet to be resolved. RAD has never been reported in the absence of serious environmental adversity yet outcomes for children raised in the same environment are the same.
The subsequent development of higher-order self-regulation is jeopardized and the formation of internal models is affected. Consequently, the "templates" in the mind that drive organized behavior in relationships may be impacted. The potential for "re-regulation" modulation of emotional responses to within the normal range in the presence of "corrective" experiences normative caregiving seems possible.
There is little systematic epidemiologic information on RAD, its course is not well established and it appears difficult to diagnose accurately. The signs or symptoms of RAD may also be found in other psychiatric disorders and AACAP advises against giving a child this label or diagnosis without a comprehensive evaluation.
Attachment behaviors used for the diagnosis of RAD change markedly with development and defining analogous behaviors in older children is difficult. There are no substantially validated measures of attachment in middle childhood or early adolescence.
The two classifications are similar and both include: ICD states in relation to the inhibited form only that the syndrome probably occurs as a direct result of severe parental neglect, abuse, or serious mishandling.
In DSM-IV-TR the inhibited form is described as persistent failure to initiate or respond in a developmentally appropriate fashion to most social interactions, as manifest by excessively inhibited, hypervigilant, or highly ambivalent and contradictory responses e.
The disinhibited form shows diffuse attachments as manifest by indiscriminate sociability with marked inability to exhibit appropriate selective attachments e. The first of these is somewhat controversial, being a commission rather than omission and because abuse in and of itself does not lead to attachment disorder.
The inhibited form has a greater tendency to ameliorate with an appropriate caregiver, while the disinhibited form is more enduring. Disinhibited and inhibited are not opposites in terms of attachment disorder and can coexist in the same child.
The World Health Organization acknowledges that there is uncertainty regarding the diagnostic criteria and the appropriate subdivision.
RAD can also be confused with neuropsychiatric disorders such as autismpervasive developmental disorderchildhood schizophrenia and some genetic syndromes. Infants with this disorder can be distinguished from those with organic illness by their rapid physical improvement after hospitalization.paper and accompanying presentation will discuss Reactive Attachment Disorder, presenting behaviors of Reactive Attachment Disorder, obstacles mental health professionals face, treatment modalities, and community .
A paper describing the diagnosis Reactive Attachment Disorder with a clinical case example, including proposed intervention. Effective Practice Based Therapeutic Techniques with Children Diagnosed with Reactive Attachment Disorder: From the Perspective of Mental Health Professionals Jennifer Lawrence St.
Catherine University This Clinical research paper is brought to you for free and open access by the School of Social Work at SOPHIA. It has been accepted for. RUNNING&HEAD:&Reactive&Attachment&Disorder& 2& Introduction!
The&attachment&theories&ofJohn&Bowlbymay&have&initiatedanimpetus&for&a paradigmatic&shift&in. Peer reviewed journals, research from psychological studies on reactive attachment disorder and even your own qualitative or quantitative study on the disorder can be used in a custom paper.
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a severe but rare disorder affecting some children. A Research on Reactive Attachment Disorder of Early Childhood Yolanda Ashton Liberty University Abstract This paper explores the psychological disorder known as Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD).
It will investigate how a child diagnosed with RAD will have an inefficient connection with his or her caregiver during an early age.