Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner of Harvard has identified seven distinct intelligences. This theory has emerged from recent cognitive research and "documents the extent to which students possess different kinds of minds and therefore learn, remember, perform, and understand in different ways," according to Gardner According to this theory, "we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences - the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse problems, and progress in various domains.
Three Types of Instructional Activities Constructivism — Learning and Teaching This page begins by emphasizing that active learning occurs "whenever experiences stimulate mental activities that lead to meaningful learning," and this cognitive activity does not require physical activity.
Section 2B assumes a cognitive constructivist view of learning-and-teaching: What are the educational implications of constructivist learning theories? What kinds of teaching strategies-and-activities are consistent with constructivism?
Here are simple responses, by Richard Mayerfor two key questions: What is constructivist learning?
What is constructivist teaching? Logically, when constructivist learning occurs during any instruction that "promotes appropriate cognitive processing," this is constructivist teaching.
Learning from Others — in Explanation-Based Instruction Most of what I know in ideas about math, science, history, philosophy, education, And even though most of my skills in athletics, social situations, labs, at work, Does this match your own experiences, for the ways you have learned most of your ideas and skills?
Constructivist Learning — it's more than just Discovery Learning A common claim about constructivist teaching is that according to theories of constructivist learning people construct their own knowledge, Learning theories influence interpersonal relationships teachers should let students construct their own knowledge by discovering it for themselves, without any explanation from a teacher or textbook.
But discovery learning is only one type of constructivist learning. We actively construct our own knowledge in a wide variety of situations, including meaningful reception learning which also is constructivist learning. How People Learn page 11 agrees: This perspective confuses a theory of pedagogy teaching with a theory of knowing.
Constructivists assume that all knowledge is constructed from previous knowledge, irrespective of how one is taught e. For example, think about your own recent experiences in learning. Have you learned anything from reading this page, or the pages it links to? Even though the authors myself and others have tried to explain ideas clearly, any learning that occurs depends on you, when you invest time and effort in reading and thinking.
You have been mentally active, by trying to understand and organize the ideas you've read, along with your own ideas that were stimulated by your use of critical thinking while you've been reading, and during all of this you combine your new knowledge with your previous knowledge.
Your process of learning is an example of cognitively active reception learning aka direct learning that can be meaningful and effective, enjoyable and time-efficient. Unfortunately, however, reception learning often is not effective. The effectiveness of reception learning is decreased when the potential learners are not cognitively active, and when the explanatory teaching is not well designed.
Let's look at some strategies for reducing the negative effects of passive students and unskilled teachers. To help students cope with this problem so they can learn more from direct explanations, we can encourage them to use metacognition and provide useful advice for how they can do this.
For example, here are some ideas excerpted from the appendix that could be useful in persuading students that metacognitive strategies will help them learn more effectively: Learning from others is an easy way to learn a lot in a little time.
Learning is an active process that requires thinking. When you learn by reading, for example, your thinking converts symbols on the page into ideas in your mind. Every time you learn a new idea, you are actively constructing your own mental representations of the idea in a personally meaningful form.
And your new idea interacts with your old ideas, as you try to combine the new and old into a coherent system of ideas. The process of active reading is the theme when Virginia Voeks You can read passively or you can make it an active adventure.
You control the quality of your learning. Of course, this motivational encouragement should be combined with practical advice for how to improve attitudes toward learning and quality of concentration. But when aiming for clarity it's important to think about what students know and how they think because, for explanatory communication, clarity is in the mind of the beholder.
David Ausubel wanted to promote learning that is meaningful not rote by reception not discoveryso he described principles for increasing the quality of meaningful reception learning. All of these teaching strategies and others because to Move Beyond the Pioneers "we should use the best current scholarship" can be used to improve the clarity of explanations.
To improve the effectiveness of explanations in helping students understand, retain, and transfer the context of explanation is important, and careful design is necessary. During my writing and speaking, I the editor, Craig Rusbult try to do this in a way that is analogous to leading in ballroom dancing: The elements are described in brief outlines A - B and, with some differences in the terms and their order, in a little more detail and in another outline and an outline with guiding-questions and with additional helpful details by Beth Lewisplus What the "7-Step Lesson Plan" Isn't by Patricia Wolfe.
Instead, their models-for-instruction combine explanations with activities. Another example of supplemented explanation is an overview, case study approach that combines explanations of both ideas and skills with activities for exploration-and-application. How People Learn states, as one of its three Key Findings, that "To develop competence in an area of inquiry, students must:Theories of Interpersonal Relationship Interpersonal relationship refers to a strong association amongst individuals with similar tastes, aspirations and interests in life.
It is essential for individuals to share a healthy relationship with each other not only for quicker delivery of results but also for a positive ambience at the workplace. Theories about mentoring  Origins . There is a consensus that the action-reflection model has been the most influential mentoring model in Norway.
The model has been developing since the s with Handal and Lauvås (, ) as originators. Aug 24, · Dispositional theories influence interpersonal relationships and govern how people behave and react in situations. When people are raised in families where they have experienced hardship or intense negativity, they tend to carry these memories and will avoid situations that present them with similar memories.
Information technology has had widespread effects on almost every aspect of our society. From the invention of the telegraph to the creation of smartphones, it . COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES COMMUNICATION Detailed course offerings (Time Schedule) are available for.
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Written by Susan Michie, Robert West, Rona Campbell, Jamie Brown and Heather Gainforth.